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There are health tests that can be performed on the Newfoundland which guides the breeder in making informed decisions. 
I am a firm believer in health testing.  I'm also a firm believer in proper diet, exercise, and protecting the environment of your Newfoundland.  The development is 100% genetics, followed by 100% environment.  Genetic considerations are the entirety of what we must consider as a breeder.  Once the puppy is born, environment is 100% of how well that puppy will do within the possibility of his genetics.    
Keep in mind a breeder is not required to perform these health tests by AKC, the State, or any other authority. 
I have personally health tested over 50 Newfoundland dogs.  This is my breed of choice and the only breed I raise. 
I have written reports & copies of clearances 
Here are tests recommended for the Newfoundland breed and what the test results mean:
Hips:  The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) examines hip x-rays.  Scores of Excellent, Good, and Fair are considered, by consensus, to be normal, acceptable scores.     
Hips:  PennHip is another method of hip evaluations performed.  PennHip evaluates the x-rays and issues the results with a DI (Distraction Index).  PennHip evaluates each hip, allowing individual assessment.  

Elbows:  The OFA determines if Elbows are normal or grades the extent of elbow dysplasia.   

Patellas (the knees):  A licensed veterinarian grades the knees with either normal to four levels of luxation.  
Heart:  The dog is graded as normal or heart murmur.  Innocent cardiac murmurs (Grade I) are believed to be related to normal blood flow in the circulation.  Innocent murmurs are most common in young, growing animals.  For this reason, the dog must be 12 months or older to be accepted in the OFA database.   
The Cardiologist (center) and his vet students visit GG Newfs

Cystinuria:  Cystinuria is a genetic disease that causes calculi stones in the bladder.  
Cystinuria is completely genetic.  If every breeder would commit to testing their breeding dogs, this disease could be eliminated from the Newfoundland breed.   



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